References: Modern Sources

The References section includes a library of Modern and Ancient source material of interest to anyone requiring in-depth knowledge about the history, cultures, and cultural property protection measures relevant to military operations in war zones. Following that source material are Links to websites that provide entry to many organizations and other information on many topics of interest to CHAMP and MilCHAG.

PLEASE NOTE: inclusion of a link to a site does not imply endorsement or responsibility for content by AIA, CHAMP, or MilCHAG!

DoD References with free information:

  • Cultural Property Protection as a Force Multiplier: Implementation for all Phases of a Military Operation, compiled by Laurie W. Rush, PhD, and designed by Heather Wagner.  The NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme.  Final CPP10-26

Digital Public Library of America

Ahern, James R.

–       “Cultural-Heritage Aspect of Stability Operations: The U.S. Army Reserve Civil Affairs’ Role.” The Officer. Apr-May 2010.

–       OIF  Deployment briefing Sep 2008.

Asian and African Studies blog, British Library, London, England.

Barker, Alexander and Paula Lazrus, ed. ” All the King’s Horses: Essays on the Impact of Looting and the Illegal Antiquities Trade on Our Knowledge of the Past.”  Society for American Archaeology Press. 2012.

Blank,  et al. Conflict, Culture & History. Air University Press, 1993

Bogdanos, Matthew.

–       Thieves of Baghdad. Bloomsbury Press, 2005.

–       Bogdanos, M.” The Casualties of War: The Truth about the Iraq Museum.” American Journal of Archaeology 109: 477-526 (2004).

Brothers, Cecilia. “Cultural Heritage and Armed Conflict”, Cultural Resource Update. Vol. 6, No. 10, page 3.

Chamberlain, Kevin. War and Cultural Heritage. Leicester: Institute of Art and Law, 2004

Convery, Ian, Gerard Corsane, and Peter Davis. Displaced Heritage: Responses to Disaster, Trauma, and Loss. The International Centre for Cultural & Heritage Studies, Newcastle University. The Boydell Press. 2014. Paperback version 2019.

Corbishley, Mike. Pinning Down the Past. Boyell Press, Nov 11.

Corn, Geoffrey S., “‘Snipers in the Minaret—What is the Rule?’ The Law of War and the Protection of Cultural Property: A Complex Equation,” The Army Lawyer, July 2005, 28.

Department of Defense, Office of General Counsel. Department of Defense Law Manual. June 2015.

Doyle, Brett. “Reconstruction and Stabilization Continuity of Operation: Insights From Iraq’s Provincial Rexonstruction Teams.” Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute. 4 Oct 2012.

Emberling, Geoff and Hanson, Katharyn (eds), Catastrophe! The Looting and Destruction of Iraq’s Past. Chicago, University of Chicago Press: 2008.

Friedman, Thomas.

–       From Beirut To Jerusalem. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1987.

–       Lexus and the Olive Tree. Random House, 1999.

–       Longitudes and Attitudes. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2002

–       The World Is Flat. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2005

–       Hot, Flat, and Crowded. Farrar, Strauss, & Giroux, 2008.

Foster, Benjamin R., Foster, Pollinger, Karen, and Gerstenblith, Patty. Iraq Beyond the Headlines: History, Archaeology, and War., World Scientific Publ. Co.: 2005

Foster, Benjamin and Karen. Civilizations of Ancient Iraq. Princeton University Press: 201o.

Jackson, Richard. “Cultural Property Protection in Stability Operations.” Army Lawyer 2008: 47-57.

Gerstenblith, Patty.

– “From Bamiyan to Baghdad: Warfare and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage at the Beginning of the 21st Century.” Georgetown Journal of International Law, 37: 245-351 (2006)

– “Protecting Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict: Looking Back, Looking Forward,” 7 Cardozo Public Law, Policy & Ethics Journal 677-708 (2009)

– “Archaeology in the Context of War: Legal Frameworks for Protecting Cultural Heritage during Armed Conflict” 5:1 Archaeologies 18-31 (2009)

Henckaerts, Jean-Marie. “Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law: A Contribution to the Understanding and Respect for the Rule of Law in Armed Conflict,” 87 International Review of the Red Cross 175 (2005)

Hladík, Jan. “The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: Some observations on the implementation at the national level,” MUSEUM International No. 228: 1-7 (2005).

Isakhan, Benjamin.

–      “Creating the Iraqi Cultural Heritage Destruction Database: Calculating a Heritage Destruction Index.” International Journal of Heritage Studies, 20(2). 2014

–      “Isakhan-proof-01_CE (2): The Case of Iraq.” In Zeidler, J. A. & Kila, J. D. (Eds.) Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural Property During Conflict (p. 221-249). Leiden: Brill. 2013.

–      “MJCC_004_03_02_Isakhan1 (2): Cultural Destruction, Historical Memory and National Identity.” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 4(3), 255-279. 2011.

Kila, Joris.

–      “ANCBS Report: Civil-Military Assessment Mission for Malian Heritage, 13-19 Jan 2014

–       “Inactive, Reactive, or Pro-active? Cultural Property Crimes in the Context of Contemporary Armed Conflicts.” Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies (JEMAHS) volume 1 issue 4,  2013 Forum. The pdf of the entire Forum with responses as well as his  individual essay is attached here JEMAHS 1 4_04_Forum Kila comp.

–      “Heritage Under Siege: Military Implementation of Cultural Property Protection Following the 1954 Hague Convention.” Brill Publishing. Jun 2012

–        “Heritage and Identity” ed. Joris Kila and J. Zeidler. Brill Publishers. Feb 2012.

–        “The relevance of cultural heritage protection in times of armed conflict. Utilizing military cultural experts in war and peacetime: cases and examples from the field.”  Article in an e-book by The Estonian Heritage Society ed. Marju Reismaa  published in  Estonian, ULTUURIVÄÄRTUSTE  KAITSE RELVAKONFLIKTI KORRAL 2009.

–       “Dissemination of the 1954 Hague Convention and the 1999 Second Protocol: Embedding Cultural Property Protection within the Military in Planning for  protection of  cultural heritage in times of conflict.” Eds. Lijnzaad,L. and Woudenberg, N. van.  Brill/Nijhoff publishers 2010.

–       “Ch. 16: The Role of NATO and Civil Military Affairs”. Ed. Lawrence Rothfield,  Antiquities under Siege.New York 2008.

–       “Utilizing Military Cultural experts in times of war and peace: an Introduction.” Chapter 12 in: Culture and  International Law, Paul Meerts editor. Hague Academic Press/Asser press The Hague, Cambridge University Press April 2008.

Lewis, Bernard.

–       The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. Random House. 2003.

–       The Middle East. Scribner. 1995.

–       The Arabs In History. Oxford. 1993.

–       A Middle East Mosaic. Random House, 2004.

–       From Babel To Dragomans. Oxford, 2004.

Meerts, P.  Culture and International Law. Hague Academic Press: Apr 2008.

“Mesothelioma Guide.” Printed by The Asbestos Center. Of interest to anyone exposed to asbestos.

Miles, Margaret M. Art as Plunder: The Ancient Origins of Debate about Cultural Property. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2008)

Milton. In The Shadow Of The Prophet. Westview Press. 2001

Nicholas, Lynn. The Rape of Europa: The Fate of Europe’s Treasures in the Third Reich and the Second World War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994

O’Keefe, Roger. The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006

Olbrys, M. “Archaeologists on Duty in Iraq: Polish Approach to the Protection And Salvage of Archaeological Heritage in Central South Iraq (November 2003–April 2005).” Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites (CMAS) vol. 8. 2007

Pollard, Nigel. Bombing Pompeii: World Heritage and Military Necessity. University of Michigan Press, 2020

Rothfield, Lawrence.

–       ed. Antiquities Under Siege. New York, 2008

–       The Rape of Mesopotamia: Behind the Looting of the Iraq Museum. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009

Rush, Laurie

–      Rush, L (ed.), Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge. 2010

–      Rush, L. “Working with the Military to Protect Archaeological Sites and Other Forms of Cultural Property.” World Archaeology, Ed. Peter Van Dommelen and Lin Foxhall. Vol 44, Issue 3, 2012.

–        Rush, L and Luisa Benedettini Millington. The Carabinieri Command for the Protection of Cultural Property: Saving the World’s Heritage. The Boydell Press: Martlesham, Suffolk, UK, 2015.

Singer, Graciela Sestoso. ISIS’ War on Cultural Heritage and Memory. Jun 2015.

Stone, Elizabeth

–      Stone, Elizabeth C. “Patterns of looting in southern Iraq” Antiquity 82: 125-38 (2008).

–      Stone, P G (ed.), “Cultural Heritage, Ethics, and the Military.” The Boydell Press, Woodbridge. 2011

–       Stone, P.G. “The Identification and Protection of Cultural Heritage During the Iraq Conflict : A Peculiarly English tale”. Antiquity, 79:306:933-943. 2005

–        Stone, P.G. & Farchakh Bajjaly, J. The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq. Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge. Paperback 2009.

–        Stone, P.G. “Protecting Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict: Lessons from Iraq” Archaeologies: Volume 5, Issue 1, 32-39. 2009

–        Stone, P.G.  “Archaeologists and Conflict: An Impossible Relationship?” Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites. 2010.

Toman, Jirí.

–      The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Brookfield, CT: Dartmouth Publ. Co., 1996

–       Toman, Jirí. Cultural property in war: improvement in protection: Commentary on the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. UNESCO Publishing, 2009.

UNESCO 2005. “Report on the Implementation of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its Two 1954 and 1999 Protocols: Report of the Activities from 1995 to 2004”, CLT-2005/WS/6.

Van der Auwera, Sigrid

–       VAN DER AUWERA, S. (2013), ‘International Law and the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict: Actual Problems and Challenges’ in International Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 43(4):175-190

–       VAN DER AUWERA, S. (2013), ‘“Culture for development” and the UNESCO policy on the protection of cultural property during armed conflict’ in International Journal of Cultural Policy, already available via i-first, DOI:10.1080/10286632.2013.817395,

–       VAN DER AUWERA, S. (2013), ‘UNESCO and the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict’ in International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 19, Issue 1, p. 1-19, available on i-first from 2011

–       VAN DER AUWERA, S. (2012), ‘Contemporary conflict, nationalism and the destruction of cultural property during armed conflict’ in Journal of Conflict Archaeology, Vol. 7, Issue 1, p. 49-65

–       VAN DER AUWERA, S. (2010), ‘Peace Operations and the Protection of Cultural Property During and After Armed Conflict’ in International Peacekeeping, Vol. 17, Issue 1

Verall, Neil, Mark Dunkley, Toby Gane, and Richard Byrne. “Dangerous Liaisons: A ‘Big Four’ Framework That Provides A ‘Hint’ to Understanding An Adversary’s Strategy For Influence.” Rusi Journal, Vol. 164, No. 3, 25 Jul 2019.

Veyne, Paul. Palmyra: An Irreplaceable Treasure. Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. University of Chicago Press. 2017.

Wegener, Corine.

–       “The Iraq National Museum: Networking, Coordination and Collaboration in Wartime Iraq.” Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and Response Proceedings. Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad, India, 23-27 November 2003, (Paris: International Council of Museums), 2004.

–       “Cultural Property at War: Protecting Heritage During Armed Conflict,” with Marjan Otter, Conservation (The Getty Conservation Institute: Spring 2008) p. 4.

–       “Assignment Blue Shield: The Looting of the Iraq Museum and Cultural Property at War.” Antiquities under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection after the Iraq War. Lawrence Rothfield, ed. (New York: AltaMira Press), 2008.

–       “Illicit traffic and looting of cultural property during armed conflict.”  Organised Crime in Art and Antiquities: Selected papers and contributions from the International Conference on Organised Crime in Art and Antiquities, Courmayeur Mont Blanc, Italy, 12-14 December 2008 , Stefano Manacorda, ed. (Milan, Italy: International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program), 2009

–       U.S. Army Graphic Training Aid 41-01-002, Civil Affairs Arts, Monuments, and Archives Guide. Wwith Roxanne Merritt, et. al. (Department of the Army), March 2005, February 2007, August 2009.

Weiss, Thomas G. and Nina Conelly. “Cultural Cleansing and Mass Atrocities.”  J. Paul Getty Trust Occasional Papers in Cultural Heritage Policy. No. 1, 2017.

Academic Sources about Ancient Civilizations:

Bierkowsky, Piotr & Millard, Alan. Dictionary Of Ancient Near East.University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000

Brackman, Arnold. The Luck Of Ninevah. Fakenham Press, Ltd. 1980

Bryce, Trevor. Kingdom Of The Hittites. Oxford Press, 1998.

Hourani, Albert. A History Of The Arab Peoples. Belknap Press. 1991.

MacKenzie, Donald. Mythology Of The Babylonian People. Bracken Books. 1996

MacQueen, J.G. Hittites And Their Contemporaries In Asia Minor. Thames & Hudson. 1986

Mallory, J.P. In Search Of The Indo-Europeans. Thames & Hudson, 1989

Payne, Robert. History Of Islam.Dorset Press. 1987.

Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. Penguin, 1992, 3rd ed.

Van De Mieroop, Marc. King Hammurabi of Babylon.Blackwell Publishers, 2005

Snell, Daniel, ed. A Companion To The Ancient Near East.Blackwell Publishing, 2007

Wriggins, Sally Hardy. The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang. Westview Press